Wiregrass Women’s Clubs

(Originally published as “It Came from the Archives: Wiregrass women’s clubs,” Troy Today, March 27, 2018, https://troy.today/perspectives/came-archives-wiregrass-womens-clubs/)

The women’s club movement in the U.S. began in the 1890s and was closely associated with the New Woman of the Progressive Era though the movement lasted well into the post-World War II era. It continues today.

Local women – from the elite in the white community and fewer but more broadly based among African-Americans – organized small clubs for education, cultural, musical, social and service reasons. They also organized under names that sound funny to us, like the New Century Club, the Tintagil Club and No Name Club (both of Montgomery, Ala.), As You Like It (Dothan), and the first women’s club in the U.S., Sorosis. Many women were members of several clubs as well as similar organizations like the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Local clubs soon joined forces. The General Federation of Women’s Clubs organized in 1890 and the Alabama Federation of Women’s Clubs did so in 1895. In this era of Jim Crow, African-Americans organized separately, with Alabama’s Margaret Murray Washington as a preeminent leader in Tuskegee, in Alabama and in the National Association of Colored Women.

A photo of the Dothan Harmony Club from the Wiregrass Archives collection.
The Dothan Harmony Club in front of the Dothan Opera House, circa 1912-1920

Much can be made of the records left by women’s clubs, for the clubs of the Progressive Era offered many women their first foray into the public sphere. Later women’s clubs helped professional women to promote their own professional growth along with improving their communities. Most surviving and accessible women’s club records are surprisingly similar, with runs of annual programs that contain member rosters, officers, history, and notices of the year’s meetings. Often each meeting had a speaker, and the programs list those topics, too. The collections also encompass founding documents, constitutions and by-laws, meeting minutes, and scrapbooks. Historians use such records to understand the structure of various clubs, and at least one has traced the evolution of clubs from general interest and education into war service projects as the U.S. participated in World War I beginning in 1917.

The Wiregrass Archives proudly houses the collections of at least 13 Dothan-area women’s clubs, most of which came to the Archives because the Houston-Love Memorial Library in Dothan moved into a new building and reduced its local holdings, sending the club records to us.

You can find guides to the current collections at the Wiregrass Archives webpage, https://www.troy.edu/wiregrassarchives/inventories/online.html, by searching for “women’s clubs.” You can access the information in the collections by visiting the Archives here at the Troy University Dothan Campus.

Our earliest collection is that of the New Century Club of Dothan (1908-1982) who concerned themselves with “municipal housekeeping.” Next is the Dothan Harmony Club (1911-1981) that abounds with musical scores in addition to the records described above. The records of the eponymous Dothan Study Club begin in 1917 and go through 2002.

A scrapbook of women's groups from the Wiregrass Archives
The Eclectas Club scrapbook from 1983

Three clubs founded between the wars promoted the study of literature and art. The Scottie Frasier Study Club (1977-2003) began in 1930 as the Young Women’s Study Club, the Dothan Book Review Club (1936-2014) opened in 1936, and the Fine Arts Club (1940-2015) started in 1940.

After World War II, a sense of civic service seems to have motivated four clubs. The Mothers’ Club of Dothan began in 1949, though we have only its 50th anniversary scrapbook from 1999; Alpha Rho chapter of the professional educators service club, Delta Kappa Gamma, was founded in 1950; Dothan’s Sorosis Club (1951-1976) began in 1951; and the civic betterment group, Soroptimist International, founded a Dothan chapter in 1956 that became the still-active Eclectas Club (1960-2015) after 1964.

Finally, local gardeners organized to improve their neighborhoods’ beauty and their own skills.  The Dothan Garden Club (1941-1959 but still active) brought together gardeners across the city while the Cherokee Garden Club (1959-2015) united hobbyists in that neighborhood of northwest Dothan.

Women in Dothan have belonged to many other organizations over the years, but even these few collections will open your eyes to the variety that existed then and today.  With luck, the Wiregrass Archives will receive more club records in the future, so future researchers will be able to examine the full array of local women’s cultural and civic activities.

Visit us online at https://www.troy.edu/wiregrassarchives or in person in Everett Hall room 128 on the Dothan Campus, University Dr., Dothan, AL.


Christmas Cards in the Archives

Christmas Cards in the Archives

The Wiregrass Archives has just received a “found collection” (scavenged from the curb) that contains a number of Christmas cards dating from 1924 to 1958, all sent to the same Alabama resident.  With just a little bit of experience, you can see that they are fairly specific to the artwork common to their era, and that styles and themes changed over these tumultuous three decades.  We thought we’d share.




This 1924 postcard shares a number of artistic themes of its day, such as the beaux-arts holly on the blue candles and the particular style of the light rays.




The 1930s and early 1940s featured cleaner lines, die-cuts, and embossing.  This card from 1938 has a cut-out of the open door, overlooking a bucolic scene on the interior page.


This postcard of a poinsettia on green embossed tile from 1938 shows the on-going influence of the Art Deco movement.


1941_Greetings _Bells_1941_001


Compare this simple die-cut edge card from 1941 with the next one from 1943.





The card from 1943 shows themes and artwork inspired by two years of World War 2:  the red-white-and-blue transport enclosed in an oval of red stars, carrying mail bound for the rustic, peaceful scene of home.  The oval behind the airplane is a cut out.




The 1950s brought rising prosperity for middle class white families, at least, and a focus on children as the baby boom was in full swing.  This 1954 Hallmark card was sent from one adult couple to another, but its motif is full toy chest.




Our last two are from 1958.

The first is a novelty card with a deceptively simple design and obscure message meant to be humorous.  Some of the artwork squares with Dr. Seuss illustrations from that same era.  Produced by National ArtCrafts, it is 8.75 inches tall and 2.5 inches wide.  The interior message makes it appear to have been custom printed, and it is the only card in this sampling that carries a union label.

The card below, by Cardinal Creations, is not as simply designed though it is more conventional and its message is more transparent. Prosperity and coziness abound.



Regardless of what YOU celebrate, the staff of the Wiregrass Archives wishes you Happy Holidays.
Be safe and well!

CFP: Society of AL Archivists, 2017 Meeting

The Society of Alabama Archivists will hold its 2017 meeting at the Gorgas Library at the University of Alabama on Friday, October 13.

The Call for Proposals is available.  Deadline for submissions is August 31, 2017.

The Program Committee solicits proposals in these categories:

INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATIONS of less than 20 minutes. May include any media supported by hardware and software available in the meeting rooms.

PANEL PRESENTATIONS should be no longer than 60 minutes.  They should consist of a chair/moderator and may operate as a discussion or a traditional panel.

POSTERS should be no larger than 36″ x 48″ and be mountable on an easel (SALA will provide cardboard backing and easel). At least one presenter must attend the Poster Session. (See http://www.posterpresentations.com/ or http://www.genigraphics.com/ for free templates.)

Please make your proposal in only one category and note what kind of presentation media you need (Powerpoint, web access, etc.).

individual and poster proposals should contain

  • complete contact information
  • presentation title
  • abstract.

Panel proposals should include

  • complete contact information for lead presenter / panel organizer
  • participant contact / title / abstract for each presentation

Submit proposals to Dr. Martin T. Olliff, molliff@troy.edu



Country Life in Photos: Making an Axe Handle

Modern hand tool handles are made on an industrial scale, often in small factories by machines running for hours at a time.  This means they’re relatively inexpensive, readily available, and easily replaceable (because the toolmaking industry has created size standards).

But not long ago, when farm folks in particular had more time during the lay-by than cash, tool and handle-making were at-home crafts that required craft skills and patience.

In 1984, Dothan photographer Doug Snellgrove took five pictures of Howard Smith (Hodgesville, AL) demonstrating the steps of making an axe handle.

First, Smith chain-sawed 40-inch lengths of a hardwood log ca. 12 inches in diameter, then split the log twice.  After quartering the log, he selected the best of these “blanks” to shape into a new handle.

Smith then rough-shaped the blank with a hatchet.




Next, he clamped the roughed-out handle under the hold-fast of a shaving horse. He weights the hold-fast with his foot as he shapes the handle with a drawknife.  Although not shown here, he might have finished the handle with a spokeshave, then sanded and oiled it.  To fit the handle into the axe head, Smith whittled it then bonded the pieces together with glue.



Craft woodworking tools (as opposed to factory machinery for woodworking) have changed little since colonial days.  Drawknives and spokeshaves are all metal with replaceable blades, and axes no longer come from the blacksmith’s forge, but the shaving horse is still homemade and the basic work is still the same. (Eric Sloan, A Museum of American Tools [NY: Ballantine Books, 1964]).


According to Ben Ferguson of Florida, a woodworker who makes beautiful bread bowls among other things, a significant improvement has occurred in sanding technology.  Thankfully, according to Ferguson, sandpaper replaced using a rag and shattered glass that cut the worker’s hands.

For more photos of life and nature in the Wiregrass, visit the Doug Snellgrove Photograph Collection at http://www.troy.edu/wiregrassarchives/inventories/099.html

Book Review: Alabama: The Making of an American State, by Edwin Bridges

bridges_alabama_coverBridges, Edwin C. Alabama: The Making of an American State. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press in cooperation with the Alabama Bicentennial Commission, 2016.  264 pages. ISBN 978-0-8173-5876-1.  Trade paperback $19.95 (accessed November 21, 2016).  http://uapress.ua.edu/product/Alabama,6460.aspx

By Marty Olliff, Director of the Wiregrass Archives

I had never planned to review books in this blog, but I’ve taken that liberty for this new state history written by Director Emeritus of the Alabama Department of Archives and History, Dr. Ed Bridges.  When an archivist/historian writes a book, other archivist/historians have an obligation to speak to it.

bridges_retFull disclosure:  I’ve known Dr. Bridges for a long time and deeply respect his integrity, knowledge, scholarship, and contributions to Alabama.  I consider us professional friends, but my evaluation of his work is not clouded by my admiration of his character and abilities.

Dr. Bridges set himself the task of writing a narrative for the upcoming Alabama Bicentennial (December 14, 2019) of Alabama’s prehistory through 2010 that well-educated avocational historians can access.  This means he has eschewed most  academic trappings (such as words like “eschewed”), footnotes, and a thesis-driven argument supplemented by historiographical explorations.  He synthesizes secondary sources rather than analyzing primary sources. His language is easy to read and he uses what some historians have called “sneaky citations” worked into the text, though generally to the most competent recent sources that are readily available.  He includes a short but thorough “Notes on Sources” in lieu of citations or a bibliography and a well-made index.  In the hands of a lesser author, this approach might yield a shallow overview, but this work is as authoritative as it is easy to read.

This book is physically impressive.  It is lavishly illustrated with 167 color and 122 black-and-white images, and is printed on heavy high-gloss paper.  Even the paperback is stitch-bound as if it was a hard back.

It is also well organized.  Dr. Bridges opens with a chapter on Native Americans, “The First Alabamians,” covering about 10,000 years through the excellent archeological sources produced by Alabama scholars.  After a second chapter covering 1700 to 1814 that examines Native Alabamian political and cultural formation and decline in the wake of European contact, Ed gets to his real scholarly strong suit – nineteenth century political history.  Through three chapters on the first century of Alabama statehood, Ed threads the needle of academic and avocational approaches to history.  He devotes two chapters to the twentieth century and follows with an Afterword that his audience should read before and after the rest of the book.

Alabama does not yet need another scholarly overview of the state’s history.  Alabama: The History of a Deep South State by Atkins, Flynt, Rogers, and Ward, now in its second edition, fills that niche at this time.  Instead, Bridges’s book fills a gap in the literature between academic histories directed toward scholars and college students and textbook histories aimed at the 4th grade.  He succeeds admirably in covering with poise and equanimity the state’s successes and its often-self-inflicted problems and failures.

But Alabama: The Making of an American State might disappoint those interested in the post-World War 1 era that was filled with as many significant changes as the nineteenth century.  This is especially true of Chapter 7, “Changing Times,” that covers 1955 through 2010.  Although it opens with a significant overview of the Civil Rights Movement, this chapter is far too hurried, with the sub-section on the economy reading like a litany of changes that beg for more explanation.  Part of the problem here has to do with the available scholarly sources.  There are simply too few that adequately cover Alabama’s history after 1965, a dearth reflected in the two short paragraphs devoted to twentieth-century sources (compared to four long paragraphs devoted to nineteenth-century sources).  It would take a scholar as deeply steeped in contemporary history as Dr. Bridges is in antebellum history to do justice to this era.  This is too much to ask of a single historian.

Even so, the editorial board of the University of Alabama Press rightly presented its McMillan Award for 2016 to Dr. Bridges for this book.  He has produced an exceptional work that belongs on all Alabama bookshelves because it makes an abiding contribution to the historical literature of our state.

The Wiregrass Common Heritage Project

In January 2016, the National Endowment for the Humanities funded the Wiregrass Common Heritage Project (WCHP), a joint venture of the Wiregrass Archives and the Troy University Dothan Campus History Department.

The WCHP hosted two workshops, two community scanning days, and a follow up meeting.

The first workshop, held on May 21 at the Dothan Public Library downtown

Frazine Taylor
branch, was Frazine Taylor’s “African American Genealogical Research in Alabama.” Taylor spent her career as a 1603060448reference archivist at the Alabama Department of Archives and History and is the chair of Alabama’s Black Heritage Council.  Additionally, she authored Researching African American Genealogy in Alabama: A Resource Guide (NewSouth Books, 2008).

The second workshop took place on June 4 at Landmark Park in Dothan.  Dana Chandler, director of the Tuskegee University Archives, presented “Preserving Your Family Treasures.  He

Dana Chandler
explained the physical and environmental threats to papers, photographs, and artifacts, then worked with attendees to properly preserve and record identification information about photographs they provided.

Two Community Scanning Days followed on June 11 and June 25, when community members chose 12 images from their collections to be digitized and added to the collections of the Wiregrass Archives. Participants received a thumbdrive with copies of their scans and archival quality enclosures for their original photographs and documents.  Six donors provided over 130 images, and one donor provided a highschool yearbook and over 200 African American funeral programs.

Scanning Days Scenes:

Scanning Teams, June 11, 2016, Dothan Library

Scanning Team Working with Donor, June 25, 2016, Landmark Park

Scanning Team working with Donors, June 25, 2016, Landmark Park
Finally, on the stormy night of December 5, Project Directors Dr. Marty Olliff and Dr. Robert Saunders met with donors and community members at the Dothan Public Library to summarize the project, point toward future project directions, and share a video made from a number of contributed slides, shown here:

WCHP from Robert Saunders on Vimeo.

Thanks to our funders and partners.

More than Meets the Eye: The Chiriaco Collection, RG 117

Contributed by Anna L. Humphries.

The Wiregrass Archives is home to many mysteries. The Americo C. Chiriaco collection is one, but using rhetorical analysis and literary history to consider the collection offers a new angle for determining a possible explanation.

Amerigo C. Chiriaco compiled a curious collection of lists that now live at The Wiregrass Archives. Chiriaco was born in 1930 and worked for the International Trade Commission. He travelled extensively for work and kept notebook journals of his travels. He eventually retired to Slocomb, AL where he lived until his death in 2003 which led to the procurement of his collection by the Wiregrass Archives in 2004.

Chiriaco notebook cover close-up. Box 1, file 31.

Chiriaco’s journals are interesting because of their seemingly bizarre contents. One might expect to find travel memorabilia and journal entries on personal experiences. Instead, he filled his spiral bound notebooks with meticulous hand-written rows and columns of plants, animals, restaurants, historical sites, sites of interests, and indigenous people along the routes he travelled.  Chiriaco organized the notebooks by region or country, and constructed his lists in alphabetical order. Along with the notebooks on locations of interest, there are reference notes on correlations with highway maps and tourist guides, some of which were also donated with the collection, others of which have been lost.

What was Chiriaco’s motive for compiling all of this information? These are not To Do lists or historical records. There is no obvious purpose for them, yet he spent years creating them. Although these lists seem to be an unsolvable mystery, the answer may lie in the history of literature.

Close-up of first page of Chiriaco notebook. Box 1, file 31.

Strange lists have been found dating back to the third century B.C. and form an ancient genre of literature called “paradoxography.” It has been found in Aristotle’s History of Animals, Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, The Geography of Strabo, Herodotus’s Histories, and catalogues composed by Hesiod. Scholars consider paradoxography in ancient writing to be a preface to science as we know it. The lists of unbelievable animals and people found in new lands and of strange and inexpiable occurrences were modeled after an Aristotelian style of the study of biology. James S. Romm offers explains the purpose of list-making in his The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought. Romm writes:

The rhetorical strategy behind such catalogues can be analyzed at a number of levels. First the matter-of-fact tone of the catalogue helps balance the exoticism of the wonders themselves: The insistence on spare linguistic structures such as the simple assertion of existence, “there is,” creates a veneer of clinical, dispassionate inquiry. Furthermore, the frequent citation of sources which typifies this kind of writing also helps bolster authority- or at least it relieves the author himself, and thereby his audience, of responsibility for assessing the truth…The cataloguer of wonders typically crowds his data into linguistic aggregates rather than distinct units: prolix, hyperextended sentences, or rapid-fire series of clauses. The proliferation of data dislocates its readers and overwhelms their ability to separate true from false, in effect forcing them to “swallow” whole that which would seem incredible if presented piece meal (92-93).

While Chiriaco’s reasoning for compiling his journals is unknown, he shares much with ancient paradoxographers. His writing is related to his travels. He creates a sense of authority by listing detailed esoteric information from economic production to fungi taxonomy. His journals were mostly composed before the internet was widely accessible. Was he striving to create all-inclusive encyclopedias of the world, or was he an aspiring travel book author?  His collection requires more examination, and paradoxography might offer one key to unlocking its mystery.

Discover the Chiriaco Collection online finding aid at


The author, Anna L. Humphries, is a Troy University Dothan Campus graduate who is hard at work on her Master’s degree in English at University of Tennessee — Chattanooga.